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Folk lore is oral history that is preserved by the people of the culture and is kept alive by passing down from one generation to the other generation verbally. ‘Folk’ is a social group of people which includes two or more persons who share at least one common attribute, who express their shared identity through miscellaneous traditions. According to the Merriam- Webster dictionary, ‘Folklore is traditional customs, tales, saying, dances, or art forms preserved among a people’. According to the Cambridge English Dictionary,

‘Folklore is the traditional stories and culture of a group of people’. Folk lore is known as Folk Literature and oral traditions and depicts how people live their everyday life, including conflicts. This research intends to delve deep into the idea of female subjectivity through folklore traditions and folksongs of Haryana. Special emphasis will be put on the delineation of women in Haryanvi Jakari’ folksongs; enabling a cultural analysis of the idea of psychological and physiological subjugation of women and their subjective response to existing cultural norms.

Folk Lore as a term was first coined by William. J. Thomas, an English antiquary, in a letter to the editor of The Anthenaeum in 1846. The new term was proposed to restore the ponderous phrase ‘Popular Antiquities’ or ‘Popular Literature’. When he first created this term folk, it applied only to the rural, poor and illiterate peasants. The study of folklore is called by different names in different countries. In America it is termed Folkloristics, in Britain it is called Folklife studies and in Germany it is known as Volkskunde. Herder, a German nationalist poet and thinker, in his anthology of German folksongs, Stimmen der Volker in Leidern (1778-79) was one of the earliest anthologists of folklore tradition in the Occident. Folklore studies began with the publication of the volume of German folktales Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childern’s and Household tales) in 1812 by young German brothers, Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm carrying forward the tradition of Herder.

According to Dorson, Folklore and Fakelore there are three types of Folklore: Oral Narratives, Material Culture and Folk customs. Oral narratives include myths, legends, fables, folk songs, folk tales, etc.
  • Myths are fictitious stories that are created by common people and are passed on from generation to generation. It exists in every society. It is a common but a questionable idea. Elements of a myth constitute the universe and mankind, the main character are often non-human (the God and the Goddesses). It also has some magical elements.

  • Legends are the ancient stories that tell about a famous event or person and their individual accomplishment. A legend is based on real historical events however the accomplishments of people are exaggerated. The hero exploits are exaggerated in order to make the story more interesting or more convincing. It comes with the combination of elements of mythical, fantastical and even magical stories.

  • Fables as a literary genre are short stories that are used to teach moral lesson that people apply to their own lives. It features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, etc. In Indian fables, animals are not inferior to the man. The most liked fables by people in India are the Panchatantra, the Hitopadesha and the Jataka tales.

  • Folk Tales are the tales told and transmitted from one generation to another generation by using word of mouth and using their imaginations, to explain the unexplainable. The authors of these stories are unknown. It is basically found in all cultures. The stories are usually timeless and placeless. The stories which we hear from our grandparents which are nowhere mention or written.

  • Folk songs can be defined as songs that belongs to the folk music of people or area. These are the songs sung both by male and female. They are not produced by one man, one generation or one particular section of society, they are composed, improved, modified and passed down from generation to generation by a word of mouth. Women have played a major role in the evolution of folksongs. It is a combination of proverbs, riddles and legends but have real time significance. Folksongs always express the deep roots tradition of a particular community.
Material culture includes the objects or belongingness of human- beings, including a wide range of tangible items, which we can see, feel or touch. Costumes, utensils, resources, machines, art, monuments, buildings, written records, religious images, weapons, clothing, factories, neighbourhoods, cities, schools, and so forth, that people use to define their culture are part of material culture. As per the notions of cultural capitalism, women are the mediums of cultural orthodox. To look into the deep divide of strengthened and suppressed emotional ideas, ‘Jakari’ folksongs can be seen as an expression or outburst of these emotions. ‘Jakari’ folksongs, are songs which portray the physical, psychological, empowered nature, leadership quality among men and women.

A Study of Haryanvi Cultural Traditions:

आ उठ चाल मेरी गेल, हरयाणा तने दिखाऊँ।
इस स्वर्ग सी धरती पे, सारे कै सैर कराऊँ।।

Haryana has had a glorious history going back to the Vedic times. The contemporary geographical state was the seat of the legendary ‘Bharata’ dynasty, from which has been taken the popular name of ‘Bharat’ as India. Haryana is called the land where the epic of Mahabharata is said to have taken place. Contemporary Haryana came into existence on 1st November, 1966 when the Punjab re-organisation bill was passed by the Indian Parliament on 10th September, 1966 to bifurcate the bilingual state of Punjab. The traditional notions of epic and contemporary lyrics has given Haryanvi folklore a unique blend of urban and rustic emotions, which manifest in ‘Jakari’ folksongs.

Haryana is known for its rich cultural heritage. People of Haryana are identified by their ‘Khadi’ Haryanvi language which is curt and straightforward. As per Nidana Heights article entitled "Haryana Desh" - The Original Haryana” there are 10 dialects spoken in the various parts of the state. It includes Khadi, Bangru, Bagdi, Kaurvi, Deshwali, Khaadar, Brij, Mewati, Ahirawali and Rangri dialects. Rangri is primarily spoken in Pakistan region up to Multan. Haryana state came to be known as Haryana because of its greenery. Some people say that this name was derived from the term ‘Hari’, God who was worshipped and is still worshipped by the people of this region. These dialects have had a great impact on ‘Jakari’ folksongs where women have expressed their contentment and disorder through each of these dialects.

The people of Haryana are well known for toil, self-reliance, valour, courage and strength. Women have been part of popular perception of strength and endurance through SarvKhap war legends. Within the context of culture and folks especially ‘Jakari’ we find women being portrayed as strong and resilient. Mostly the people of Haryana, follow their own traditions and customs. Agriculture is the main profession of Haryana where both men and women are engaged in the cultivation of wheat, rice, vegetables, jowar, bajra, sugarcane, cotton and many more. Haryana is famous for its food and it is generally said, देसां में देश हरयाणा, जित दूध- दही का खाणा। . Haryana is known for its various festivals which are celebrated by people that reflects its culture. For example: Makar Sakranti, Teej, Basant Panchmi, Phaagan and many more. In every festival, women use to sing songs and celebrate the festivals. They have songs of each and every festival which get reflected in ‘Jakari’ folksongs.

In rural areas people of Haryana are preserving and following their old spiritual and social traditions including fairs and festivals which are celebrated in all the traditional customs. When it comes to customs every caste has to follow its customs. A boy or a girl is not recommended to marry to his/her own blood clans. They are not allowed to marry in the same ‘gaut’ as this is considered to be incest.

Haryanvi Folklore and its development through the ages:

Haryana is known for its rich cultural folklore which include Folk Drama, folk songs and folk dance. Folk Theatre of Haryana is ‘SWANG’ and it was staged in the open with audience sitting around. It consists of twenty to thirty male artists which include Director, Producer, Musicians and artists. Male artist used to play the role of women. Shri Kishan Lal Bhatt started ‘Swang’ his famous works are Nautanki, Laila Majnu, Heer-Ranjha. Then came Renowned Haryanvi War Poet Fauji Jat Mehar Singh Dahiya who is also known as the ‘Shakespeare of Haryana’ and his famous Swangs are “Anjana-Pawan”, “Neta Ji Subhash Chandra Bose”. He was followed by Bansilal and his famous ‘Swang’ are Guru Gugga, Raja Gopichand, Raja Nal, Sarwar Neer, Dhruv Bhakat. Then came Alibaksh Khan whose famous works are Raja Nall ka Bhagdau, Nall Ka Chraun, Fishana, Padmawat, Krishanleela etc and then Pandit Lakhmi Chand also known as ‘Surya Kavi’.

A combination of music, dance and poetry is called folk dance (Natya). Dhammal, Khodia, Ghummar, Phaag, Loor, Gugga are the various types of folk dances in Haryana in which both male and female participate. Haryanvi dance is very famous where women and men wear their own traditional costumes. The costumes are simple and attractive. Men usually wear Shirt, Dhoti, Paag, Kurta, Turban, Khes, Saafa and Jooti. Whereas, women wear Kamri, Khara, Sopli, Damman, Kurta, Floweral Chundad (Phulkari)i etc with lots of heavy jewellery which include Koka, Nath, Laung, Bujjni, Purrli, Bhanwra, Tagdi, Satka etc but nowadays Salwar-Kameez and Dupatta. Women usually cover their head with dupatta as a ethnic belief of the culture. Folk Songs of Haryana plays very important role in preserving its culture. The songs are sung by women in every euphoric atmosphere. There are various kind of folksongs in Haryana such as Seasonal folksongs, Ritualistic, Teej songs, Phaag and Holi songs, Bhajans and Jakari folksongs.

Importance of Women in Folksongs

As mentioned above that in Haryana there are various kinds of folksongs sung on almost each and every occasion. In every celebration for example if there is a marriage and in marriage folksongs there are lots of ceremonies that are to be celebrated and done with singing of folksongs but it cannot be completed without involving woman. Woman has to be present in any relation (‘bhabhi’, ‘Maa’, ‘Tai’, ‘Behen’, ‘Bua’, ‘Nanad’, ‘Jethani’. ‘Devrani’, etc.,) what is needed at that point of time for example: in ‘Bhaat’, ‘Ubatna’, ‘Ratjaga’, ‘Thaapa’, ‘Ferre’, ‘Gurchari’, ‘Banra’, ‘Banari’ these all ceremonies of marriage folksongs cannot be accomplished without the presence of women, which shows that without women, folksongs or ceremonies cannot be completed as women plays a very important role in Haryanvi society showing their authorized position at every point of time. Mostly in Haryana, folksongs are sung by women. Through folksongs one can notice the importance of women in Haryana and their shows, the priority of women in Haryanvi society. In Haryana, women lead in almost every occasion and celebration, without them rituals cannot be fulfilled.

Role of Women in Jakari Folksongs:

According to Simon de Beauvoir work, The Second Sex, the writer says about man and woman that, “he is the subject, he is the absolute- she is the other”. Indian women in no less than men in any sphere of life. She is even much more hardworking as compared to man. Women takes care of the family, look after her children, do agriculture work with full enthusiasm. They do not feel shame in doing any work, they earn their livelihood like men. Every role she plays brilliantly. When we talk about the power of women in Haryana then the first name that comes in our mind is Dadiraani Bhaagirathi, Chief of Women Wing of Sarvkhap Army who not only fought with Mughals in 1355 AD but also made Changej Khan’s commander named Maamur dead. Then comes Dadiraani Rampyaari Ji, she was the chief of woman wing of Sarvkhap army in war against Taimur Lang in 1398 AD. She led 40,000 females, this war was won by Sarvkhap. Then comes Dadirani Shama Kaur Ji who did not accept Kaula-Poojan of Muslims and many more rituals in 1620 AD that resulted in the death of Nawab and his family with uprooting of his Riyasat of Kalanaur (near Rohtak) by SarvKhap Army. Since ages Indian women have brought laurels to the country, making their country proud and fighting for its country’s honour. More examples are there form Haryana state in modern time such as Manushi Chillar won Miss World title after seventeen years, Phogat sisters (Geeta Phogat, Babita Phogat) also known as Dangal girls, who won India’s first ever Gold medal in wrestling at Commonwealth games in 2010. Sakshi Malik in 2016 securing her position as the fourth female Olympic medallist won Bronze medal in wrestling. Saina Nehwal badminton player who has represented her country in different countries. Mamta Kharb ‘golden girl’ of Indian Hockey is an Arjuna awardee etc. Another ability of women in which they are expert and they have the power to transform the atmosphere full of joy on any occasion through their folk arts like folksongs. Women contribution is much in evolution of folksongs, there are many folksongs that women sing such as Seasonal Folksongs, Holi songs, Marriage songs, Birth songs, ‘Jakari’ and many more.

‘Jakari’ is an important genre of folksongs in Haryana. These songs are unique in themselves as they can be sung on any occasion, though especially in leisure’s time. ‘Jakari’ folksongs are of the greatest importance as they represent the major section of a young Haryanvi landlord woman’s life. i.e. beginning with her coming of age (attaining puberty) to her becoming of a mother (attaining motherhood). This is the most pivotal period in the life of a female. She encounters hormonal changes in her body which is a natural phenomenon, after that at proper age of marriage she gets married, where according to the customs and traditions, she has to leave her parent home and shift in the conjugal home where she has to lead the house as her mother-in-law did in her time. Woman becomes a leader as much as her husband is in her conjugal place. It is a chain of legacy where a woman who is now a mother-in-law when her son gets married, she passes her power to lead the house to her daughter-in-law.

There are many folksongs in Jakari where woman is the daughter, sister, lover, wife of an army officer, wife of a farmer and mother. Being a wife of an army officer, if she is not with her husband and is in her conjugal place, she stands strong to deal with all societal norms. She does each and every household-chores, when her husband is not present. She plays the role of both parents for her children very proficiently. How society treats her, taunts her and blames her, she stands strong against all odds and shows her empowered nature by doing and involving in each and every hard work. The wife of a farmer without hesitation does her household work as well as help her husband in fields as well, which shows how strong a woman of Haryana is. Both males and females work affectionately to run their family and to earn a livelihood.

In the first Jakari folksong, woman of the house is ordering her husband to get separated from his parents as her mother-in-law fights with her daily. So, from this line it is enough to know that a woman is demanding like ordering and she is leading the man in making a separation from her in-laws. So, it is quite clear from this point that, the people who say Haryana is a patriarchal state in nature, so this folksong is telling the depth of a rural or a urban house where man is obeying what his mother and/or wife wants him to follow. So, both the females of the house are leaders and man becomes the centre.

न्यारा होजया ओ भरतार

न्यारा हो जया ओ भरतार तेरी माँ लड़ै दिन रात न्यारा हो जया
मनै पाइया चून भतेरा
मांडा तेरा भी बण जया फुल्का मेरा भी बण जया
पिंड़ी मुन्ने की बण जया न्यारा हो जया
न्यारा हो जया ओ भरतार तेरी माँ लड़ै दिन रात न्यारा हो जया
मनै सो का नोट भतेरा
गोझी तेरी भी भर जया बटुआ मेरा भी भर जया
गुल्लक मुन्ने की भी भर जया न्यारा हो जया
न्यारा हो जया हो भरतार तेरी माँ लड़ै दिन रात न्यारा हो जया
मनै दो गज कपड़ा भतेरा
कचछा तेरा भी बण जया कबजा मेरा भी बण जया
झुगला मुन्ने का भी बण जया न्यारा हो जया
न्यारा हो जया हो भरतार तेरी माँ लड़ै दिन रात न्यारा हो जया
मनै दो गज धरती भतेरी
पिलंग तेरा भी घल जया खटिया मेरी भी घल जया
पालणा मुन्ने का घल जया न्यारा हो जया
न्यारा हो जया ओ भरतार तेरी माँ लड़ै दिन रात न्यारा हो जया ।।

In the above folksong, now the answer to all those questions which are raised for a women’s living under phallocentric society is here. In which woman of the house is suggesting her husband to live separately from his parents as his mother fights with his wife daily. She gives many examples and reasons that when they will live alone, they won’t be going to face any kind of difficulties. This part also shows the kind of supremacy of woman as compared to man. As she is making him understand that she is ready to face all the coming challenges in their living and by giving examples she is saying that 250 grams of flour is enough for her family as she can prepare food for her husband, her son and for herself. She is assuring him by saying that 100 rupees are enough for them to run a house and to earn a living. Two- yard cloth is enough for all three of them as she can sew favourite clothes of all. After that she even talks about land that two of yard land is enough for all three of them as in that their beds can be easily lay down. So, here even if she is ready or making her husband understands that she is capable to handle her house at her own. Again, a kind of leadership quality in woman can be seen. Instead of being a puppet in someone’s hand here woman herself is taking initiative to lead the life the way she wants by taking her husband and child at her own side.

मेरी बड़ी दुख पाई मुरगाई

भावज नै बूझ रहया रही मेरी कड़ै गई मुरगाई
देवर वा तो पाणी नै गई ओ रास्ते महैं करै थी अंघाई
रूल लिए हाथाँ महैं ए वो तो होया कुवे की राही
दूर सी बेठ गया ए झोली तै हूर बुलाई
नैड़ तेरी तारूँगा रै तनै लयाज सरम ना आई
ऐंख भर गी पाणी की ओ तेरै किसने रयकसा लाई
रूल गेरया हाथाँ तै ए पापी नै कालजे कै लाई
गैल ले चालूगाँ रै मेरी घणी दुख पाई मुरगाई।

In this folksong, an army officer came in holidays at his home. When he reached home, he asks his sister-in-law about his wife. She replies that his wife went to fetch water from the well and was notorious in her way. As soon as he heard this, he took one stick in his hand and moved towards well. He sat at a distance and by waving his hand he called his beloved wife and said that today he will kill her as she did not feel shame in doing notorious behaviour. Her husband dropped stick from his hand and hugged her. And after listening her, he made a decision by saying that he will take her with her as she is in miseries here.
Here in the above explained folksong love and care between a couple is shown. Although family members tried to polarize the two. But their plan of doing so was not successful. Hence, male in this song understood that without his presence his wife has to go through a lot of problems and sorrows so he thought of living with her in army so that he can take care of her and they both can live happily without others interference.

सासड़ नै तो बहू जगावै

सासड़ नै तो बहू जगावै उठके सानी भे ले री
तू तो री सासड़ गोबर गेरया मैं रोटी साग बणा लयूँगी
दिन छिप जया फेर गादड़ बोलैं जब तूँ घर नै आइए री
सारे दूध का जामण लाया तेरे नाम का भूली री
लास्सी का तो भरया बरोला रोट पड़े दस बारहा री
रोटी खाके न्यू करिए बालकाँ की खाट बिछाइए री
बखत उठके सासड़ पीसण का जोटा लाइए री
बहू तेरी कमजोर घणी पाणी की दोघड़ लयाइए री ।

In the above Jakari folksong, at the point when we talk about the privileges of a woman in contemporary society, so this folksong is been sung since ages and still present today. At the point when one side we state that after marriage it gets hard for daughter-in-law to adjust in the matrimonial home uncommonly when we see or listen to the explanation in a large portion of the cases it is seen as the mother-in-law in any case, in this folksong, it is totally different of most regular discovered explanation. Here, daughter-in-law is administering over her mother-in-law. She causes her to rise promptly toward the beginning of the day and requests her to do household chores and outside work by offering reasons to her of her wellbeing. Consequently, she gives her stale food and gives nonsense reasons of the inaccessibility of milk. At the point when she gets back home in the wake of completing work in the fields, daughter-in-law is prepared with her order of another work for her that in the wake of eating make beds for her grand- children. Before dozing she ensures disclosing to mother-in-law-morning work that she needs to rise ahead of schedule to pound the flour and to get water from well as her daughter-in-law is frail.

Thus, what do we find in the above-clarified folksong is that mother-in-law is doing and adhering to her daughter-in-law's instructions however she didn't get fresh food or a decent dinner. What we have seen is that relative is the pioneer and she leads the family yet here daughter-in-law is the person who is leading. No role of male centric society is found. Rather we find patriarchy the hand of female.

तूँ क्यूँ रै मरै नरभाग

हो सुंदरे के तोल दे नाथ देर क्यूँ ला रया सै
हो मेरै घरें नहीं भरतार खेत महैं जा रया सै
हे उनै एक तार दिया फेर दूसरा ले रया सै
हे उसकी मुट्ठी हो रही लाल पसीना आ रया सै
हो तूँ क्यूँ रै मरै नरभाग तेरै के कुणबा भारया सै
हो तेरे तै बड़ा तेरा बीर नौकरी जा रया सै
हो तेरे तै छोटा तेरा बीर मदरसे महैं जा रया सै
रै महारै भाई भाइयाँ का प्यार आज पड़वावैगी
रै महारै हेली कै बारणा एक तीन लगवावैगी।

In this folksong, a woman is getting late to get her nose-pin from jewellers. Where she says that her husband is not at home, he has gone to work on the fields. After seeing her husband doing hard work in the fields, she suggests him that why does he do that much of the work, does he have a large family. As her elder brother is doing the job and his younger brother studies. After listening to his wife, he got her wrong intentions of making these three brothers separate from each other and to live separately. He says that they have one gate but the way she is moving ahead she will make sure to get build three gates from that one.

हो जया रै गोरी न्यारी

चंदा की चमकणी रात मोटे मोटे तारे
उसनै लिखके गेरया तार हो जया रै गोरी नयारी
मनै मन महैं लाया बिचार मै कयूकर हो जयाँ न्यारी
मेरे घर पे नणंद जिवान जेठा सै घरबारी
मनै उल्टा गेरया तार हो गी ओ पिया न्यारी
बलधाँ की लयाइए जोट गैल लयाइए हाली
एक रूँड़ी लयाइए महैंस गैल लयाइए पाली
सोनै के लयाइए ओ गिलास चाँदी की लयाइए थाली
उनै उल्टा गेरया तार होइए ना गोरी न्यारी
भीनैं के ढाई हजार उने की आ जया थाली

In this folksong, the woman gets a letter from her husband in night in which he wrote to live separately from the family members. After reading the female thought that how she can get separated as till now her sister-in-law is unmarried and elder brother-in-law takes care of the family. She dropped a letter to her husband by writing that she got separated and now she needs couple of oxen with one farmer. Bring one buffalo with one worker. Bring gold glass and bring one silver plate. He dropped a letter to her again by saying that do not live separately as he earn two thousand five hundred rupees only and he can’t bring that much of things in that much amount of money.

So, in this above explained folksong caring nature towards family is shown where she thinks about her daughter-in-law and every member. And to make her husband understand she wrote what they want if they live separately from others. So, we find these types of folksong also where is not obeying and becoming a reason for the happiness of family.

हे री मै कदे ना पीऊँ सराब

जिठाणी तेरे देवर नै घालिए ए हे मैं कद की देखूँ बाट
बेबे ए वो तो ठेके महैं जा लिया हे ए ठेके महैं पीवै सराब
सराबी तो सांझे नै आ गया ए हे साहलया महैं सूती मेरी सास
माता री मेरी पो दे हे री बढिया सा बणा दे साग
बेटा रे मेरी आसंग कोनी रे हे रे महैलाँ महैं सूती तेरी नार
सराबी तो ऊपर चढ गया ए हे मेरी चयम दे उघड़ी आँख
गोरी रै मेरी रोटी पो दे रै बढिया सा बणा दे साग
पति तो मनै खूटी कै जूड़ दिया ए हे मनै दोनूँ पकड़े हाथ
खूँटी के तैं बैंत तार लिया ए हे मनै मारे बैंत पचास
माता री मनै ईब छुटा दे री हे री मै कदे ना पीऊँ सराब
बहू ए मेरी भले घराँ की ए हे मेरे बेटे की छुटा दी सराब।

When we talk about domestic violence, we always see that a man is beating a woman but we never try to know the reason behind that fighting we just according to our own perceptions blame a man always. Whenever there is a fight between a couple, we blame a man is both the cases i.e. if a man slaps a woman then how rude he is and if a woman slaps a man then also, we say it must be a man’s mistake. So, this is how our thinking has been built by what we study and what we hear, we never try to think and give our own inputs into such thoughts.

Now in this above folksong, the male is a drunkard and he has gone to drink liquor at liquor store. He comes at night and says to his mother to prepare chapattis with a tasty vegetable. His mother replied to go to his wife who is sleeping in the palace above. He goes up there and as his wife was frustrated from his daily routine of drinking. She tied up his hand and gave him about fifty sticks after which he said to his mother to stop his daughter-in-law promising that he will never drink in future. After hearing this. His mother praises his wife that she belongs to an honoured family that she made her son to stop drinking.

ए जिसके पकड़े जाँ भरतार

हे तेरे बिना नीर सूख जया बाग सूख जया मेवा की ड़ाली
ए जिसके पकड़े जा भरतार के उसका सिंगरणा ठीक नही
ए मैं पैंड़ी दोघड़ तार के ठाढूँ रोय पड़ी
ए मनै मन महैं लाया बिचार आज तेरा रोणा ठीक नही
ए गोझाँ महैं घाले ढाई हजार पति नै छुटवाण चाल पड़ी
ए कुर्सी पै बैठया थाणेदार जले की ए ठाड़ी ए गोझ भरी।

Now, in this Jakari folksong, woman is seen as a protector, who instead of weeping and yelling at home by hearing society’s comments. Her husband has been caught up by the cops. She took two thousand and five hundred rupees and went to police station. Station inspector was sitting in front and she filled up his pocket with money for her husband.

So, it is not like that a man can only protect and stand for his wife. A woman can do what ever she wants and in her own way that she likes. Here she is standing for her husband instead of crying sitting at home. Women were no less than man in any sphere since ages.

उसके सदा दुखी भरतार

हाँ ए उसके सदा दुखी भरतार ए जिसके घर महै फूअड़ नारी
जिद फूहड़ नै पाई देवर की जलाई धोती
जिद फूहड़ नै दिया हारा देवर का जळाया ढारा
हाँ ए उनै महैं लगा देई आग ए फेर रूक के मारण लागी
हाँ ए उसके सदा दुखी भरतार ए ए जिसके घर मैं फूअड़ नारी
ठा दोघड़ पाणी नै चाली कूवे ऊपर तार देई
कूवे ऊपर तारक नै बाहर हो नै चाल पड़ी
हाँ ए उसकी बिगड़ गई सलवैर ए फेर धोण जोहड़ महै चाली
हाँ ए उसके सदा दुखी भरतार ए जिसके घर महै फूहड़ नारी
बेठ आँगण महै रोवण लागी बीज बिघन के बोवण लागी
हाँ ए उसका बयाहा देवै बोल रै कित जागी बूआ महारी
हाँ ए उसके सदा दुखी भरतार ए जिसके घर महै फूहड़ नारी

In this above Jakari folksong, deeds of a mismanaged woman are described. When she was preparing chapattis; she burnt cloths of her younger brother-in-law. When this lady gave fire pot to her younger brother-in-law, she burnt the cattle shed. She burnt the house and after burning she started shouting. She does all those works which gave her a name of a mismanaged woman and due to all this her husband is not at all comfortable. When she fights with the whole family her husband says that it is not easy to stay with mismanaged woman in life.

नार मेरी भी लागे रै

जेठ मेरे की बड़ी सी हेली हेली महैं बिजली के तार जेठ मैं देखण आई ओ
दूध लोटे में लयाई ओ ओ मैं काचँ का लयाई गिलास जेठ मैं तो पयावण आई ओ
दूध नै तो निचै धर दे रै हे रै महारे छोटणे भाई की नार मेरे मन की कर दे न
जेठ तेरी बेटी लागूँ ओ हो तू लागै धर्म का बाप खयाल इज्जत का राखिए हो
बेटी तो थारे घर क्या की लागै रै हे रै महारे छोटणे भाई की नार नार मेरी भी लागै रै
जेठ थाणे महैं दयूँ पकड़ाय ओ थाणे महैं रिपोर्ट गुहाई मेरा बालम देखा हो।

In this Jakari folksong, woman is telling her jeth (elder brother-in-law) wrong intentions towards her. Woman is telling that her brother-in-law has a big mansion and she went to see it. The woman says to him that she has brought a glass of milk to make him drink. The man asks her to keep the milk down and do what his heart wants today. The woman says that she is his daughter and he is like her father. He should keep that honor in his mind. On this the man says that she is the daughter of her own family and here she is wife of his younger brother so, she is his wife as well. On hearing this, the woman says that she will give him to the cops and her husband would be an evidence.

In this Jakari folksong, the woman is not ready to listen to the intensions of her elder brother-in-law. The woman takes stand for herself. When woman asks him to be in his limits in justification the man says that as she is the wife of his brother then with that relation, she is his wife as well. After listening to such an unexpected answer, the woman gets angry on her brother-in-law and warns him that she will complain against him to the police. A strong side of a woman we can see in this folksong, who is not ready to do what her brother-in-law demands from her and take a stand for herself. And being a woman threatens him to complain against him to the police. In this song if she is the wife of his brother then the woman is not the object or commodity that he also has a share in. The sexual desire towards a woman and objectification of a woman is shown.

मनै भरकै कोळी पटकया ए

मेरा जेठ तरावण आया ए मनै लिया टोकरा तार
चालदी का आगा हेर्या ए मनै दोनूँ जोड़ लिए हाथ
सरमांदी बोली कोनया ए जेठे की राख गई लह्याज
दोबारा की रोटी पोऊँ ए मेरा जेठ धरा था आग
गोरी पतळे मांडे पोइए रै खावाँगे दोनू साथ
बळधाँ की सानी भेऊँ ए मेरा जेठ धरा था आग
गोरी बढ़िया साननी भाइयो रै कदे महैं ए छोड द् यो नीर
सरमांदी बोली कोनया ए जेठे की राख गई लह्याज
सांझे की रोटी पोऊँ ए मेरा जेठ करै था स्नान
गोरी बढ़िया सब्जी बनाइयो रै खावाँगे दोनूँ साथ
जेठा तोवळ करके आइए हो कदे घणी लगा दे देर
मनै साँझै ए साँकळ भेड़ी ए मनै कर्या मोगरा तैयार
गोरी जल्दी साकँळ खोलो रै थारे बहार खड़े भरतार
मनै भरकै कोळी पटकया ए कोहणी तै टूट गया हाथ
माता ताता पाणी कर दयो री सेकूँगा अपना हाथ
बेटा साची साच बता दे रे तनै कड़ै तुड़ाया हाथ
माता ऊत घराँ की आई री महारी लेई आबरू तार
बेटा भले घराँ की आई रे थारी लेई आबरो राख

In the above Jakari folksong, a woman is telling her brother-in-law’s wrong intentions towards her. While explaining she tells many things where her brother-in-law shows his intensions towards her. Woman tells that one day her brother-in-law helped her in landing the container and he even get in her way but in respect she joined her both the hands and did not utter a single word and went away. After that the woman was preparing lunch and her brother-in-law was keeping flame and he told her to make thin chapattis and also said that they both would eat together. The woman tells many incidents where her brother-in-law comes in her way as one day, she was making ox fodder and her brother-in-law was keeping the flame and there also he said to her to make the fodder well and not to left water into it. Again, here the woman did not utter a single word in his respect as he is elder. Then, the woman tells that she was preparing dinner and her brother-in-law was bathing. Again, here he said her to prepare tasty food and said they both will eat together. Then when he was going outside the woman ask him to come soon and not to get late. And in the mean-time the woman locked the door and prepared a stick for him. When the male gets in, he told her to open the door and said that her husband is standing outside. As the woman knows the reality as soon as she opened the door, she held him and throwed him on the flour in which his elbow breaks. When this incident happened on the very next day, the man asks his mother to do hot water for him so that he can warm the elbow with the hot water. His mother asks him how his hand got broken? Then, in answer he said that his sister-in-law belongs to bad family and she downgraded my respect. On hearing his mother corrected him and said her daughter-in-law comes from a respected and reputed family and she kept his honor not downgraded it.


Now, in the above Jakari folksong one woman is telling his elder brother-in-law’s character and advances towards her. Woman is shown as an object of desire where male part is showing his interest towards her and to make her love he always comes in her way. But in respect the woman stays quiet and just walk away. But when he crosses the limits then she thought of teaching him a proper lesson. And in night what so ever the woman could do she did. Now, in this song we see a different form of woman where she is not seen as dependent on any other person but she takes a stand for herself. The woman by her own thought of teaching lesson to her brother-in-law as he was crossing limits. As in previous songs we have seen that when woman’s husband is not at home she use to drop letters to him and then he use to come and as part of male-centric society he never used to listen to her and always shows her proper place which is very low as compared to other members of the clan. But here the woman shows her power and did not even complain to any other member but herself comes in front and take stand for her self-respect and honor. The female does not hesitate in beating her brother-in-law as she thought there is no option left with her as she never spoke or say any word to him just for his respect but when he did not stop then she showed her power and did not compromise with the situation but stand for it. Even at last when the woman showed the man his proper place he lies to his mother and complained that daughter-in-law does not comes from a good family and she downgraded his respect, so how when woman is not ready to compromise or is ready to be used as an object of desire from a man than how the man is not feeling shame of blaming a woman to save his oneself. The woman in this song did her best to stay away and to keep the respect of the family but when brother-in-law is provoking again and again then she showed him his correct place what he really deserves as well.

So, there are folksongs where woman is suppressed, is treated inferior and subordinate and on the other hand she is supreme, leader and is at authorized position and is shown where she is no more dependent on her husband or on other family member whenever she is in some bad or pathetic situation. Even songs are there when woman’s husband does not take her side or does not listen to her whether it is the case of her self- respect or her feelings. Male pose certain duties on her just because she is a woman.


There are folksongs where male shows his power of being a male and woman also is no less in showing her leadership power. Domestic violence both genders do, be it a male or a female. Just to show power they beat each other with or without any mistake. We have seen many types of folksongs where woman is at supreme power. So, to use woman as an object and subject of desire in the main theme of Jakari folksongs is somehow unjustifiable in light of the fact that she has her own voice and choice both. Through these folksongs, women explain their conditions, their inner world of feelings and desire and there are the people not interested or ready to hear her unheard voices but she makes them to listen. In these types of folksongs woman are seen as meek, silent, quiet, and dependent on other human beings. But we see and different era also where women are able to take their stand for themselves without being dependent on others. When it comes to self-honor and self- respect woman shows her power and is not ready to compromise with the things and accept what society wants her to. Woman is able to speak for herself, stand for herself, and try to make a change in her conditions.

Women are the epitome of love and strength. Women have achieved immense success in every field. Women of Haryanvi culture are full of courage, self-dependency and financially capable. Jakari as a medium of the subaltern voicing their grievances and isolation has proven to be a sustaining culture.

On numerous occasions, women have been addressed of their capacities and contrasted with their male partners. A great many people contend that change is going on, yet what we as a whole need to conquer is that, change has not arrived at the apex of aggregate and complete sexual orientation balance. Women's liberation is no new term and regardless of whether influxes of woman's rights can be followed route back ever, it has in the ongoing past contacted the "modern world". In any case, regardless of whether fruitful or not, celebrated or humiliated, numerous women clutched their ponies, battled the shackles bound upon them and rose to sparkle.

Jai Dada Nagar Kheda Bada Bir

Author: Shallu Pahal

Pahal - A meaningful and educated initiative.
Shallu means the master of right path.
On April 20, 1996 a girl by the same name came into existence.
While the Dular of the village's soil gave strength to the mind, the Education of the best guru gave strength.
When she decides the path of her life by her own agony, craving for literature and the flag of self-respect of the woman also started blowing into the thoughts.
Today there is a huge sky ahead of Shallu which she has to authorize from her flight.
The wings of the spirit are so huge that even Amber is eager for friendship.
English was a subject which had the practice of terrorizing a trainee of the village, today Shallu has known her Rome.
To be the master of knowledge is the real education.

Research Scholar
Ph. D. English

First Edition: 27/08/2020

Publisher: NHReL


Primary Texts:

  • Kumar, Devender. Jakari: Haryanvi Mahilaon Ke Sarv Sulabh Lokgeet. Varanasi: Badheni, Kishore Vidya Niketan. 2015. Print.

  • Kumar, Devender and Karan Singh. The Unknown Voices. New Delhi: Pitampura, Radha Publications. 2011. Print.

Secondary Texts:

  • Beauvoir, De Simon. The Second Sex. London: Oxford University Press. 1949. Print.

  • Dundes, Alan. The Study of Folklore. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall. 1965. Print.

  • Dundes, Alan. Essay in Folklore Theory and Method. Cre-A Madras, India. 1990. Print.

  • Dorson, Richard. Folklore and Fakelore. London: The University of Chicago. 1972. Print.

  • “Folklore.” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, “Folklore.” Cambridge English Dictionary, Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary. Cambridge University Press.

  • Hariyanvi, Madan. Hariyana Lokgeet Sandarbh [The Folk Songs of Haryana]. Delhi: Dehati Pustak Bhandar. 1962. Print.

  • Kumar, Devender. Jakari: Life Songs of Haryanvi Women. Web.

  • Kumar, Devender. Jakari: A Saga of Young Haryanvi Woman’s Life. Web.

  • Nussbaum, Martha. “Objectification”, Philosophy and Public Affairs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.1995. Print.

  • Pahal, Shallu. Jakari: Women's Voices as a Dissent against Patriarchy. Tathapi with ISSN 2320-0693 is an UGC CARE Journal 19.8 (2020): 624-637.

  • Malik, Phool Kumar. Sarvkhaap Yauddheya Vilkashan Veerangana Dadirani Bhagiraathi Devi Ji Maharaani. Jind: Nidana Heights Sodh Parishad, 06/2014.

  • Malik, Phool Kumar, "Haryana Desh" - The Original Haryana” 09/2012

Art & Life Topic Box
The list of issues/topics published on Nidana Heights till date under site' Art & Life section. Item are enlisted in alphabetical order:

Art & Life:

Articles in English:
  1. Changes in Haryana Villages
  2. Art of Haryanvi Kumhaars
  3. Woodcrafts in Haryana
  4. On trail of Rabaris
  5. Fading Frescoes of Haryana
  6. Crumbling Heritage of Haryana
  7. Kuans-Baolis of Haryana
  8. Saanjhi Ri - The folk art
  9. Salvaging Symbols of Haryana
  10. Magnificent Masonry Tanks
हिंदी में लेख:
  1. हरियाणवी भित्तिचित्र कला
  2. हरिगंधा लोकवार्ता
  3. हरियाणा का लोक-इतिहास
  4. हरियाणा की धर्मशाला-परम्परा
  5. हरियाणा की आहार परम्परा
  6. हरियाणवी बुनकरों की धरोहर
  7. संस्कृति के वाहक
  8. हरियाणा की धाड़ संस्कृति
  9. प्राचीन भारत को जाट/जट्ट की देन
  10. परिवर्तन के आयाम
  11. ग्रामीण लोक-इतिहास
NH Case Studies:
  1. Farmer's Balancesheet
  2. Right to price of crope
  3. Property Distribution
  4. Gotra System
  5. Ethics Bridging
  6. Types of Social Panchayats
  7. खाप-खेत-कीट किसान पाठशाला
  8. Shakti Vahini vs. Khaps
  9. Marriage Anthropology
  10. Farmer & Civil Honor
NH Banners & Messages
“Say no to Dowry”
Eliminate this sex inequality!
Human purchases vegetables, cattle even all routine courses in hand to hand give and take deal then why this blunder mistake in marriages that only girl’s side will pay and that too in double costs in terms of daughter and dowry both? Lets stop this male dominance and female discrimination. - NH
“Adore the girl child”
Say no to female foeticide!
If you can’t bear the birth of a girl child in your family, you should not expect a bride for your son. Invaders are gone, lets bring  back our divine period of Vedic times for our females. - NH
“Lead the Change”
Keeping the system of discussion alive!
Moving with time and adapting the change is the only key to sustain civilizations. - NH
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